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THE TRUTH ABOUT REVIVING DEAD BATTERIES

When your deep-cycle battery nears end-of-life, it’s normal to want to squeeze as much out of it as possible before spending money on a new one. Numerous online videos show a variety of ways to revive a dead or dying battery using various substances and hacks. The truth is, there are many factors that contribute to poor battery performance and failure, and it is important to diagnose the symptoms of poor battery performance before determining a cure.  It is also important to understand that many of the supposed “cures” can damage the battery, while others can be dangerous and do nothing to improve battery performance.

Fred Wehmeyer, Senior VP of Engineering at U.S. Battery, has more than 50 years of experience in rechargeable battery design and development.  He says that many of these hacks claim to show some type of improvement, but the gains shown may simply be artificial. One of the more common ones is adding Epsom salt to the battery cells.  According to Wehmeyer, adding Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate) to a lead-acid battery will ‘artificially’ increase the specific gravity reading (SG), but because it does not increase the sulfuric acid concentration, it does nothing to improve battery performance.

“This is because the sulfates in the Epsom salt are tied up as magnesium sulfate and are not available for discharge to lead sulfate as the sulfates in sulfuric acid are,” said Wehmeyer. “If you filled a new lead battery with a magnesium sulfate solution instead of sulfuric acid electrolyte, it would have no capacity at all.”  Simply put, adding Epsom salt will not recover the battery capacity but does “artificially” increase the SG.

According to Wehmeyer, the result would be similar if you remove the dilute electrolyte from a discharged and/or sulfated battery and refill it with the electrolyte for a fully charged battery (usually 1.270). The specific gravity will be higher, but the battery plates are still discharged and/or sulfated. Doing this will probably kill a potentially recoverable battery (see below).

Baking Soda and Aspirin

Other popular hacks include adding baking soda to recover a dead battery. Baking soda mixed with water is often used to clean the tops of batteries and battery terminals because it neutralizes the sulfuric acid and acidic corrosion products. Wehmeyer says that pouring baking soda into the battery cells will neutralize the sulfuric acid in the electrolyte to sodium sulfate that cannot discharge to lead sulfate in the normal discharge reaction.  This will also permanently reduce the capacity of the battery, which was most likely already low.

Adding aspirin to the battery is another hack that is often seen in videos claiming to revive dead batteries. Wehmeyer says aspirin is acetylsalicylic acid, which eventually breaks down into acetic acid. Acetic acid attacks the positive lead dioxide plates in the battery and permanently damages them, leading to short battery life.  This may show a small, temporary increase in capacity but will quickly kill the battery.

Pulse Charging 

If your battery is sulfated, which results in low power and difficulty in recharging to full capacity, it can sometimes be recovered using proper pulse charging techniques. Wehmeyer warns, however, that there are an infinite variety of pulse charging techniques used by a wide variety of equipment sold for this purpose.  These techniques include DC (direct current) pulses using various voltages and currents, as well as AC (alternating current) pulses with a wide range of AC frequencies. “The problem is that if not done properly, it can do more damage than good,” says Wehmeyer. “Having said that, I have tested some very complex and very expensive pulse chargers that appeared to recover sulfated batteries more quickly than traditional methods.  Most pulse chargers use an external power source (wall AC) to power the device. Some, however, use the battery’s voltage to power the charge pulses. This can kill the battery if left connected for long periods of time without a separate charger.”

Ultimately the best recommendation for potentially recovering a sulfated battery is to save your money and try using a long, slow charge.  If you have a battery charger that has a reconditioning or equalizing charge mode on it, that may be your best bet. “Use the equalization charge mode regularly, about once a month, on deep-cycle lead-acid batteries to extend the life of the battery,” says Wehmeyer. “Regular equalization charges prevent sulfation and stratification by balancing the individual cells and properly mixing the electrolyte.  In addition, a long slow charge could help recover already sulfated batteries to make them last a little longer.  If your charger does not have an equalization charge mode, simply wait until the charger completes a normal charge and then restart it by unplugging AC power and reconnecting.  The charger should continue charging for an additional 1 – 3 hours.  If the battery is dead from poor maintenance, worn-out from too many deep cycles, overcharging, or excessive deep discharging; it probably can’t be recovered.”

Following manufacturer-recommended care and maintenance procedures will get you the longest life and best performance from any battery. For more information on how to care for your lead-acid batteries, check out the U.S. Battery User Manual.

 

Maximize Battery Charger

MAXIMIZE YOUR LIFT’S BATTERY CHARGE PROFILE

In the same way, that different deep-cycle battery designs vary in capacity and overall performance, charging the battery can be as unique as the battery itself. Because deep-cycle batteries in various vehicles and machinery can differ in their work environment, the battery’s capacity and performance are susceptible to how they are charged and maintained. Battery manufacturers like U.S. Battery work with charger manufacturers such as Delta-Q to develop various charging profiles for particular battery sizes and designs to maximize your lift’s battery performance. Ultimately, the overall performance of any work platform comes down to how well the batteries are maintained, the depth of discharge, and the “charge quality” during each recharging session.

According to Delta-Q, the manufacturer has more than 50 charge algorithms on hand for a variety of batteries. To determine how to give your equipment’s battery the best charge, you need to understand what charge algorithms are. There are different charge algorithms available on many battery chargers, but to understand this, you first need to know that there are basically three stages of battery charging. The first is a Bulk Stage, where the charger uses constant current at full charger output to bring the battery to approximately 80% state of charge. The second stage is Absorption Charge using constant voltage where the charge current tapers from full charger output to a lower level that depends on battery conditions. The charger allows the battery to control the charge rate at which it can accept a charge until 100% of the amp-hours removed on the previous discharge are returned. At this point, the battery is not quite fully charged and requires a controlled overcharge. The third stage is the Finish Charge, where the charger gives the battery a lower constant current charge at a charge rate that is proportional to the design capacity of the battery. Assuring the battery is fully charged and provides enough gassing to mix the electrolyte to prevent electrolyte stratification.

During these three charge stages, charge algorithms can differ in current, voltage, time, and amount of overcharge. Charge algorithms are adapted to optimize charging for specific battery models and chemistries. To begin with, there are three primary types of algorithms. SPECIFIC charge algorithms that are custom designed in collaboration between the charger manufacturer and the battery manufacturer and are used by most Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) of access lifts and machinery. For performance and warranty reasons, lift OEM’s use a specific battery and therefore require a particular charge algorithm to maximize the battery life for the performance and use environment of the equipment. Depending on the battery chemistry and its use, the charge time and current applied during these three stages can vary to provide the best possible balance between cycle life, runtime, and overall battery life.

Some charger manufacturers use GENERIC charge algorithms designed for particular battery chemistries (such as flooded lead-acid, AGM or Gel) and a wide range of amp-hour capacities. Each chemistry requires a different charge algorithm and amount of overcharge. According to charger manufacturer Delta-Q, a generic charge algorithm will provide a reasonable compromise between battery life and performance. Generic algorithms provide greater flexibility between battery makes and models, especially if the owner decides to change to a different battery when it’s time for the battery to be replaced.

Some charger manufacturers offer UNIVERSAL charge algorithms that can be used for all types of batteries, and most battery manufacturers do not recommend the use of these algorithms. If used, battery state of charge and temperature should be carefully monitored to prevent undercharge or overcharge that could severely decrease battery performance and life.

Ultimately, the best way to get the most out of your batteries, and your lift equipment, is to consult with the manufacturer and/or look up the charge algorithm they have for the specific battery in your equipment. The battery charger should use that specific charge algorithm; allowing you to get the most out of your batteries and ultimately your equipment. For more information on batteries and charging profiles, visit www.delta-q.com.

Specific Gravity

WEEDING OUT A BAD BATTERY FROM YOUR PACK

Most electric golf cars utilize a battery pack of four or more deep-cycle batteries that can last a long time if you’ve performed the proper maintenance. Periodically, however, the vehicle may not seem to have the range it used to, and replacing all of the batteries may be cost-prohibitive at the moment. In most cases, it’s not the entire battery pack that is going bad, but instead, one battery is not keeping up with the rest of the pack and hurting performance.

Identifying A Bad Battery In Your Pack

1: Fully Charge Your Battery Pack And Take Readings

Perform a full charge to all the batteries and check the specific gravity readings on each battery with a hydrometer and multi-meter. Use the battery manufacturer’s data to see if the readings show the battery pack is undercharged. (Here’s an example of a typical deep-cycle battery data). Repeat the charge cycle to bring the state of charge of the pack up. If, after repeated charges, the batteries begin to increase in specific gravity readings, the problem is not the batteries, and further investigation is required.

2: Perform A Discharge Test At 50% DOD

If the specific gravities indicate charged batteries (1.260 or higher in all cells) and the voltage readings are good on each battery, discharge the battery pack on the vehicle in question. If one cell is significantly lower than the rest of the cells in the pack, mark that battery as suspect. Use a load tester or run the golf car through its typical routine. Battery packs that give less than 50-percent of the rated runtime are usually considered bad.

3: Test And Find The Bad Battery

Measure the voltage at the end of your discharge test to locate the bad battery. The one with a significantly lower voltage than the rest of the pack at the end of discharge is usually the culprit.

4: What If All The Batteries Show Low Voltage?

If all the batteries have a low voltage, and your hydrometer readings on all the batteries do not show a single defective cell, then the entire battery pack may be at the end of its service life.

Replacing Defective Batteries

Once you’ve found a bad battery in your golf car’s battery pack, it is okay to replace the single battery with a new one if it’s under six months old.  If the battery is over six months old, it’s best to replace it with another battery from your fleet that has a date within six months of the rest of the pack or replace the entire pack.

When replacing a single battery or battery pack, it’s important to keep these facts in mind:

1) Cycle life comparisons should be made at the same depth of discharge (DOD).

2) Amp-hour ratings should be compared using the same discharge time and/or discharge current that will be used in the application.

3) Run-time ratings may be the most accurate comparison when selecting a battery for a given application.

Battery Watering fill line

Take the Worry Out of Watering Deep-Cycle Batteries While Making Them Last Longer

The switch to battery-powered aerial platforms, scissor lifts, and boom lifts allowed these vehicles to be smaller, more maneuverable, and safer. Most use deep-cycle FLA batteries because they offer the lowest operation cost if you maintain and replenish water in the battery cells. That’s where the difficulty often lies. Busy schedules and long work hours often leave batteries improperly maintained in this critical area resulting in a loss of performance and life.

Addressing this issue results in two options:  replace your vehicle(s) batteries with more expensive lithium or maintenance-free lead batteries, or make watering simpler to assure your batteries are watered properly so they can last longer and provide optimum performance.  With the availability of a variety of battery watering monitors and single-point watering systems, there’s no reason that your batteries’ maintenance should be neglected.

A battery watering monitor replaces one vent cap on a single battery of a battery pack and indicates the battery pack’s water level. Since batteries are usually connected in series in a pack and charge and discharge together as a pack, you typically only need one monitor per vehicle to indicate the condition of the battery pack. Vehicles with multiple packs in parallel will need one for each series pack.  Watering monitors use a built-in probe and processor that triggers an LED indicator light to signal when the pack needs water. The indicator light can be mounted in the battery compartment for easy access by maintenance personnel or in a more convenient location that the operator can easily monitor.

Combined with one of several types of single-point watering systems on the market, watering batteries can be made very simple.  Watering systems are designed to work on just about any battery model. Most are very simple to install with many kits available pre-assembled for your specific vehicle, battery manufacture, and battery configuration. When batteries need watering, attach the inlet connection of the watering system to the kit’s siphon valve and a hand pump that supplies water from an appropriate source (most often a large container of distilled water). After a few pumps to start the siphon, all of the batteries in your pack are filled to the correct level without the fear of overfilling.

The advantages of maintaining the electrolyte levels more frequently and reliably results in battery packs lasting much longer – as much as 7 – 10 years in many instances, especially when battery packs are not discharged more than 50% as recommended by most manufacturers. Combine this with charging your batteries at every opportunity and performing an equalizing charge at least once per month. You’ll see a dramatic increase in the life and overall performance of your batteries.

In addition to saving money over the long run and making your batteries last longer, the drudgery of battery watering can be reduced to a quick and simple procedure.

TTBLS structure grown with additives

Improving Deep-Cycle Batteries Through Additives

Battery manufacturers have improved deep cycle battery performance through the use of additives, but not all of them result in the same benefit to customers. At the core of all deep-cycle flooded lead-acid (FLA) battery technology is a basic design that has undergone continuous improvement over more than 100 years. Lead battery chemistry is one of the most reliable and cost-effective technologies over any other type of battery used in a variety of global industries. While these batteries have historically been the most widely used and the most recycled, a variety of additives and technologies have been introduced over the last few years to improve their efficiency to an even greater extent.

Grid Alloys

Historically, the primary failure mode of deep-cycle lead-acid batteries has been positive grid corrosion. The grid alloys used to manufacture deep-cycle flooded lead-acid battery plates typically consist of lead with additions of antimony to harden the soft lead, and to improve the deep cycle characteristics of the battery. Additional metals are often added to the lead-antimony alloys to improve strength and electrical conductivity. Another additive that is used to enhance lead-antimony alloys is selenium. Selenium acts as a grain refiner in lead-antimony alloys. This fine-grain alloy provides additional strength and corrosion resistance over conventional lead-antimony alloys. The effect of these improvements is that positive grid corrosion is no longer the primary failure mode, and the cycle life of FLA deep cycle batteries has been significantly increased.

Active Materials

The starting materials for deep cycle FLA positive active materials are made from a mixture of lead oxide, sulfuric acid, and various additives. These materials improve the performance and life of the positive electrodes in a finished battery. Historically, positive electrodes have been processed using a procedure called hydroset. This procedure is designed to ‘grow’ tetrabasic lead sulfate (TTBLS) crystals in the plates to provide the strength to resist the constant expansion and contraction of the active materials during cycling. This crystal growing process has limitations in its ability to control the range of sizes of the TTBLS crystals. Through the use of crystal seeding additives, the range of crystal sizes can be controlled to the most desirable sizes. These uniform crystal sizes in the TTBLS structure result in increased initial capacity, faster cycle-up to rated capacity, higher peak capacity, and improved charging using the wide range of charger technologies used in various applications.

Concurrent with the improvements in deep cycle FLA positive active materials, improvements in the performance of deep-cycle FLA negative active materials are needed. Carbon additives have been used in the negative active materials of lead-acid batteries for many years. These additives have been used in lead-acid battery expanders to prevent the natural tendency of the negative active material to shrink or coalesce during cycling. Negative active material shrinkage can reduce the capacity and life of deep-cycle FLA batteries. Recent improvements in these carbon materials have opened up new opportunities to improve several performance limitations of lead-acid batteries. New structured carbon materials such as graphites, graphenes, and nanocarbons have been used to control sulfation and improve chargeability in a partial state of charge (PSOC) applications such as renewable energy.

Although the basic structure of an FLA battery hasn’t changed for more than 100-years, manufacturers are continually searching for ways to improve efficiency while maintaining their cost-effectiveness. Additives are one of the ways FLA batteries are becoming more efficient, and new technologies to further enhance them are on the horizon.

AGM and Flooded Deep-Cycle Batteries

Understanding the Differences Between AGM And Flooded Deep-Cycle Batteries

When it comes to powering electric vehicles like golf carts, deep-cycle lead-acid batteries are the industry standard. The reason is that they are designed to provide the most cost-effective energy storage and delivery over the life of the battery.

Over the years, there have been two main types of deep-cycle lead-acid batteries that many golf car owners and fleets have used, the Flooded Lead-Acid (FLA) battery and the Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) battery. While both provide optimum performance in a wide variety of applications, their design difference can offer various advantages depending on the application.

Engineering

The main design difference between FLA and AGM batteries is how the electrolyte is managed. In FLA batteries, the battery plates are submerged in the liquid electrolyte. During use, water in the electrolyte is broken down into oxygen and hydrogen gases and water is lost. This requires regular additions of water to be replaced to keep the battery plates fully submerged in the electrolyte.

In AGM batteries, the electrolyte is absorbed in special glass mat separators that retain all the electrolyte needed for the life of the battery.  Since there is no free electrolyte, the oxygen generated on a charge is recombined at the negative plate.  In normal operation, hydrogen is not generated and no water is lost.  This eliminates the need to add water and also allows the battery to be sealed with a one-way valve that prevents leakage of the electrolyte.

Performance Differences

FLA batteries have been used in a wide variety of applications for well over 150 years. Their popularity comes from their safety, reliability, and cost-effectiveness when compared with other types of rechargeable batteries.   According to Fred Wehmeyer, U.S. Battery Senior VP of Engineering, FLA batteries deliver the lowest cost per watt-hour both in acquisition cost and in overall cost per charge/discharge cycle.  “This is why they are the best choice for fleets of vehicles or equipment that are used heavily on a daily basis,” says Wehmeyer. “Also, both FLA and AGM batteries offer an environmental advantage over other types of batteries because they are essentially 100 percent recyclable and enjoy the highest recycling rate of any commercial product.”

AGM batteries offer the advantage of being maintenance-free. This can be significant in applications where regular maintenance is difficult or costly, such as when the batteries are located in remote or hard to access locations. Even though AGM batteries cost more per watt-hour, the elimination of maintenance costs reduces the overall battery operational costs.  Also, since the battery is sealed and does not emit gases in normal use, it can be used in sensitive areas such as food or pharmaceutical storage facilities.

Selecting between FLA or AGM deep cycle batteries ultimately depends on the type of use and the capability to provide regular maintenance in the application.

AGM = No Maintenance + Higher Cost + Susceptible to abuse like overcharging

FLA = Requires Watering + Lower Cost + Susceptible to abuse from poor maintenance

No matter what type of battery you use, it is always best to target the depth of discharge to 50 percent or less for both FLA or AGM battery types. This will optimize battery life cycle cost vs acquisition cost over the life of the battery system.

 

Testing Battery Specific Gravity with Hydrometer

Temperature’s Impact on Charging Deep-Cycle Batteries

The chemistry of flooded lead-acid deep-cycle batteries makes them one of the most cost-effective methods of energy storage. The composition of the battery’s design, however, makes it sensitive to temperature, which can affect its charging and discharging rate, something that should be addressed in regular maintenance routines.

Cold temperatures slow the rate of charging and discharge, while warmer temperatures increase the rates. This means that it may take longer for your batteries to fully charge in the winter than they will in the summer. Additionally, in the warmer summer months, batteries may discharge more quickly. Battery manufacturers use 80-degrees F (27 C) as the baseline temperature for optimum operation and calculating charge and discharge rates. Obviously that doesn’t work for everyone, so it’s important to take specific gravity readings with a hydrometer to know if and when your batteries are properly charged in all temperature conditions.

Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a solution to the weight of an equal volume of water at a specified temperature. A hydrometer can give you an indication of the state of charge of the battery’s electrolyte. A higher number indicates a higher concentration of acid in the electrolyte, indicating the battery is charged. A lower number indicates that the concentration of acid in the battery is less, showing the amount of discharge of the battery.

Battery manufacturers recommend using a simple correction factor to your hydrometer’s readings. Using 80-degrees as your baseline, subtract (.004) from your hydrometer reading for every 10-degrees below 80 °F (5.6-degrees below 27 °C). For example, if the temperature of the electrolyte is 50 °F and your battery specific gravity reading is 1.200, you must subtract .012 from your reading. In this case .004 for every 10-degrees equals .012. Subtract this from 1.200 and your corrected specific gravity reading is 1.188.

Specific gravity readings must be done on every cell of each battery in the pack. Compare the readings to the battery manufacturer’s specifications to indicate the state of charge of your batteries. While it’s not necessary to calculate your hydrometer’s readings for slight variations above or below 80 °F, it should be done in extreme weather conditions or seasonally to ensure that your battery-powered vehicles or equipment are performing at their best.

Connected 8v Batteries

Deep-Cycle Battery Terminals And Cable Maintenance Tips

When battery-powered vehicles and equipment suffer from intermittent performance issues, one of the most common reasons for this is poor battery cable connections. Ironically, loose connections can be caused by both under-tightening and over-tightening of the battery terminal connectors, as well as corrosion that can occur over time. Deep-cycle battery terminals are made from lead, which is a soft metal that creeps over time. The result is that they must be retightened regularly to maintain proper torque levels. If too much torque is applied when attaching cables to battery terminals, however, it can cause damage to the lead terminals preventing them from making a proper connection.  Battery manufacturers recommend terminal torque specifications that vary with the different types of terminals used for deep-cycle batteries.

Deep cycle batteries can come with UTL, UT, large and small L, Offset S, and SAE tapered post terminals, among others.  For UTL and UT battery terminals with threaded studs, the recommended torque is 95 – 105 in-lb (7.9 – 8.8 ft-lb).  For bolt-thru terminals such as large and small L and Offset S, the recommended torque is 100-120 in-lb (8.3 – 10 ft-lb).  SAE terminals have a recommended terminal torque of 50-70 in-lb (4.2 to 5.8 ft-lb). For other terminal types, consult the battery manufacturer’s recommendations. When measuring terminal torque, use a torque wrench with settings or readings in the 0 – 200 in-lb (0 – 16 ft-lb) range. Larger torque wrenches can inadvertently exceed the recommended settings or readings.

It is also important to consult the battery manufacturer’s recommendations for the proper type and assembly of the terminal hardware. Most manufacturers provide stainless steel nuts and lock washers or plated bolts, nuts, and lock washers with the batteries depending on the type of terminal used. The correct method is to position a lock washer between the nut and the connector (never between the connector and the lead terminal) and apply the recommended torque to completely compress the lock washer without deforming the lead terminal.

Clean terminals will maintain the best connection, so if corrosion is observed on the battery terminals and connectors, they should be cleaned with a wire brush and a solution of baking soda and water to neutralize any electrolyte that may be on the surfaces. To reduce the formation of corrosion on the terminals, battery manufacturers recommend using a corrosion inhibitor after making proper connections. Never apply grease or other lubricants between the terminals and connectors since they can interfere with the connection.

Check the cables to determine if they are corroded and need to be replaced.  Corrosion can extend under the cable insulation but is often not visible. A good ‘tug’ on the cables can expose weak connections. If new cables or connectors were added during the life of the vehicle, make sure the wire connectors are properly crimped and soldered to the cable ends.  Studies have shown that wire cables with crimped connectors that are not soldered to the cable ends can corrode faster and create a high resistance connection between the wire cable and crimped connector. This high resistance can cause excessive heating during discharge and melt the lead terminal, causing a loss of connection and permanent damage to the battery.  If any of the cables show signs of melted insulation, corrosion under the insulation, or have bare wire showing replace the cables and connectors.

While faulty connections are often the cause of battery terminal meltdowns resulting in poor performance, using appropriately sized wires with properly crimped and soldered connectors and the proper torque settings will reduce the chances that poor connections will adversely affect battery performance.

U.S. 145 XC2 with XC2 logo

Initial Capacity vs Rated and Peak Capacity for Deep-Cycle Batteries

Deep cycle batteries are designed to provide continuous power over an extended period of time and are then recharged in preparation for the next discharge/recharge cycle.  For many industrial and consumer applications where energy storage is critical, flooded lead-acid batteries provide premium performance at an unrivaled cost.  Consumers, however, may not be aware that flooded lead-acid deep cycle batteries are designed to reach their rated and/or peak capacity after a conditioning period of capacity ‘cycle-up’.  This cycle-up period consists of a series of discharge/recharge cycles in normal operation during which the available battery capacity increases with each cycle.  This conditioning cycle-up period is designed to provide the optimum in cycle life vs. cost for this type of battery and application.  The number of cycles required to achieve rated and/or peak capacity depends on many factors, including but not limited to battery design, recharge method, depth of discharge, temperature, etc.

Most deep cycle battery manufacturers provide a ‘Capacity Development Curve’ that describes the relationship of initial capacity and the number of cycles required to achieve rated and/or peak capacity for this type of battery.  The test procedures used to determine battery capacity ratings and capacity development relationships are specified in Battery Council International procedure BCIS-05 BCI Specifications for Electric Vehicle Batteries (Rev. 2010-15).  Per BCIS-05: “Long-life deep cycle EV batteries typically exhibit 75-80% of rated capacity on initial discharge, full rated capacity within the first 100 cycles, and >100% of rating at peak capacity.”

To achieve optimum cycle life vs. battery acquisition cost, most battery manufacturers recommend sizing the battery’s capacity to ~50% depth of discharge (DOD).  This not only optimizes the cycle life of the battery vs. cost but also provides a ‘reserve’ capacity in situations where additional runtime is needed beyond normal requirements.  Since flooded lead-acid deep cycle batteries can continue to deliver useable capacity down to ~50% of rated capacity, this recommendation also allows utilization of the total number of cycles available from the battery.  For these reasons, the fact that this type of battery does not deliver full rated capacity ‘out-of-box’ is not usually an issue and can easily be managed through proper battery sizing and choice of battery type and manufacturer.

Battery manufacturers do recognize that fleets operating battery-powered machinery such as aerial platform lifts, floor cleaning machines, pallet jacks, and golf carts desire the highest possible capacity over the life of the battery.  Accordingly, they are constantly improving battery designs and charging methods to achieve the highest possible initial capacity and the fastest possible cycle-up without compromising overall cycle life.