Posts

THE TRUTH ABOUT REVIVING DEAD BATTERIES

When your deep-cycle battery nears end-of-life, it’s normal to want to squeeze as much out of it as possible before spending money on a new one. Numerous online videos show a variety of ways to revive a dead or dying battery using various substances and hacks. The truth is, there are many factors that contribute to poor battery performance and failure, and it is important to diagnose the symptoms of poor battery performance before determining a cure.  It is also important to understand that many of the supposed “cures” can damage the battery, while others can be dangerous and do nothing to improve battery performance.

Fred Wehmeyer, Senior VP of Engineering at U.S. Battery, has more than 50 years of experience in rechargeable battery design and development.  He says that many of these hacks claim to show some type of improvement, but the gains shown may simply be artificial. One of the more common ones is adding Epsom salt to the battery cells.  According to Wehmeyer, adding Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate) to a lead-acid battery will ‘artificially’ increase the specific gravity reading (SG), but because it does not increase the sulfuric acid concentration, it does nothing to improve battery performance.

“This is because the sulfates in the Epsom salt are tied up as magnesium sulfate and are not available for discharge to lead sulfate as the sulfates in sulfuric acid are,” said Wehmeyer. “If you filled a new lead battery with a magnesium sulfate solution instead of sulfuric acid electrolyte, it would have no capacity at all.”  Simply put, adding Epsom salt will not recover the battery capacity but does “artificially” increase the SG.

According to Wehmeyer, the result would be similar if you remove the dilute electrolyte from a discharged and/or sulfated battery and refill it with the electrolyte for a fully charged battery (usually 1.270). The specific gravity will be higher, but the battery plates are still discharged and/or sulfated. Doing this will probably kill a potentially recoverable battery (see below).

Baking Soda and Aspirin

Other popular hacks include adding baking soda to recover a dead battery. Baking soda mixed with water is often used to clean the tops of batteries and battery terminals because it neutralizes the sulfuric acid and acidic corrosion products. Wehmeyer says that pouring baking soda into the battery cells will neutralize the sulfuric acid in the electrolyte to sodium sulfate that cannot discharge to lead sulfate in the normal discharge reaction.  This will also permanently reduce the capacity of the battery, which was most likely already low.

Adding aspirin to the battery is another hack that is often seen in videos claiming to revive dead batteries. Wehmeyer says aspirin is acetylsalicylic acid, which eventually breaks down into acetic acid. Acetic acid attacks the positive lead dioxide plates in the battery and permanently damages them, leading to short battery life.  This may show a small, temporary increase in capacity but will quickly kill the battery.

Pulse Charging 

If your battery is sulfated, which results in low power and difficulty in recharging to full capacity, it can sometimes be recovered using proper pulse charging techniques. Wehmeyer warns, however, that there are an infinite variety of pulse charging techniques used by a wide variety of equipment sold for this purpose.  These techniques include DC (direct current) pulses using various voltages and currents, as well as AC (alternating current) pulses with a wide range of AC frequencies. “The problem is that if not done properly, it can do more damage than good,” says Wehmeyer. “Having said that, I have tested some very complex and very expensive pulse chargers that appeared to recover sulfated batteries more quickly than traditional methods.  Most pulse chargers use an external power source (wall AC) to power the device. Some, however, use the battery’s voltage to power the charge pulses. This can kill the battery if left connected for long periods of time without a separate charger.”

Ultimately the best recommendation for potentially recovering a sulfated battery is to save your money and try using a long, slow charge.  If you have a battery charger that has a reconditioning or equalizing charge mode on it, that may be your best bet. “Use the equalization charge mode regularly, about once a month, on deep-cycle lead-acid batteries to extend the life of the battery,” says Wehmeyer. “Regular equalization charges prevent sulfation and stratification by balancing the individual cells and properly mixing the electrolyte.  In addition, a long slow charge could help recover already sulfated batteries to make them last a little longer.  If your charger does not have an equalization charge mode, simply wait until the charger completes a normal charge and then restart it by unplugging AC power and reconnecting.  The charger should continue charging for an additional 1 – 3 hours.  If the battery is dead from poor maintenance, worn-out from too many deep cycles, overcharging, or excessive deep discharging; it probably can’t be recovered.”

Following manufacturer-recommended care and maintenance procedures will get you the longest life and best performance from any battery. For more information on how to care for your lead-acid batteries, check out the U.S. Battery User Manual.

 

Maximize Battery Charger

MAXIMIZE YOUR LIFT’S BATTERY CHARGE PROFILE

In the same way, that different deep-cycle battery designs vary in capacity and overall performance, charging the battery can be as unique as the battery itself. Because deep-cycle batteries in various vehicles and machinery can differ in their work environment, the battery’s capacity and performance are susceptible to how they are charged and maintained. Battery manufacturers like U.S. Battery work with charger manufacturers such as Delta-Q to develop various charging profiles for particular battery sizes and designs to maximize your lift’s battery performance. Ultimately, the overall performance of any work platform comes down to how well the batteries are maintained, the depth of discharge, and the “charge quality” during each recharging session.

According to Delta-Q, the manufacturer has more than 50 charge algorithms on hand for a variety of batteries. To determine how to give your equipment’s battery the best charge, you need to understand what charge algorithms are. There are different charge algorithms available on many battery chargers, but to understand this, you first need to know that there are basically three stages of battery charging. The first is a Bulk Stage, where the charger uses constant current at full charger output to bring the battery to approximately 80% state of charge. The second stage is Absorption Charge using constant voltage where the charge current tapers from full charger output to a lower level that depends on battery conditions. The charger allows the battery to control the charge rate at which it can accept a charge until 100% of the amp-hours removed on the previous discharge are returned. At this point, the battery is not quite fully charged and requires a controlled overcharge. The third stage is the Finish Charge, where the charger gives the battery a lower constant current charge at a charge rate that is proportional to the design capacity of the battery. Assuring the battery is fully charged and provides enough gassing to mix the electrolyte to prevent electrolyte stratification.

During these three charge stages, charge algorithms can differ in current, voltage, time, and amount of overcharge. Charge algorithms are adapted to optimize charging for specific battery models and chemistries. To begin with, there are three primary types of algorithms. SPECIFIC charge algorithms that are custom designed in collaboration between the charger manufacturer and the battery manufacturer and are used by most Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) of access lifts and machinery. For performance and warranty reasons, lift OEM’s use a specific battery and therefore require a particular charge algorithm to maximize the battery life for the performance and use environment of the equipment. Depending on the battery chemistry and its use, the charge time and current applied during these three stages can vary to provide the best possible balance between cycle life, runtime, and overall battery life.

Some charger manufacturers use GENERIC charge algorithms designed for particular battery chemistries (such as flooded lead-acid, AGM or Gel) and a wide range of amp-hour capacities. Each chemistry requires a different charge algorithm and amount of overcharge. According to charger manufacturer Delta-Q, a generic charge algorithm will provide a reasonable compromise between battery life and performance. Generic algorithms provide greater flexibility between battery makes and models, especially if the owner decides to change to a different battery when it’s time for the battery to be replaced.

Some charger manufacturers offer UNIVERSAL charge algorithms that can be used for all types of batteries, and most battery manufacturers do not recommend the use of these algorithms. If used, battery state of charge and temperature should be carefully monitored to prevent undercharge or overcharge that could severely decrease battery performance and life.

Ultimately, the best way to get the most out of your batteries, and your lift equipment, is to consult with the manufacturer and/or look up the charge algorithm they have for the specific battery in your equipment. The battery charger should use that specific charge algorithm; allowing you to get the most out of your batteries and ultimately your equipment. For more information on batteries and charging profiles, visit www.delta-q.com.

US AGM 8D Battery

U.S. Battery Manufacturing’s US AGM 8D Offers High-Performance Power For Marine Applications

U.S. Battery Manufacturing’s AGM 8D deep-cycle, maintenance-free battery is designed to increase runtime and service life for marine applications where reliable power is always needed.  This 8D group sized, 12-volt battery measures 20.5’ (521mm)L x 10.6” (268mm)W x 8.86” (225mm)H and has been designed to fit in tight compartments and can’t be easily accessed for routine or frequent maintenance required for deep-cycle Flooded Lead batteries.

The US AGM 8D deep-cycle battery has a 308 amp-hour rating at a 20-hour rate, with a runtime of 262 minutes at a 56-amp draw. This performance delivers the power your boat’s accessories need to run longer and reliably, powering everything from lights and troll motors to keeping your satellite and emergency communications equipment working during long voyages.  The battery’s internal structure features thick positive alloy grids for exceptional corrosion resistance, high-density positive active material, and advanced glass mat separators. These components work together to maintain the battery cell structure during deep-cycling, limit acid stratification, and inhibit internal shorts. The batteries also feature carbon-enhanced negative active material that improves charge acceptance and cycling performance. In addition to vibration resistance and main­tenance-free valve-regulated operation, the battery is one of U.S. Battery’s latest AGM designs that are engineered to improve reliability, overall performance and deliver a longer cycle life.

8D SAE post

8D SAE post

With a heat-sealed, heavy-duty, red ABS case, the US AGM 8D can handle working in harsh environments and comes with an F14 insert style terminal; an optional screw-in SAE terminal post is also available. More information on the US AGM 8D is available by downloading the battery’s datasheet.

overlanding house prowerrv

Increase Your RV’s House Power For Overlanding Adventures: Selecting The Right Battery

Most RV’s are equipped with two types of batteries, one for engine starting and another that stores reserve energy to power appliances and the electrical systems in the RV (house power). Most campgrounds with RV parking have electrical hook-ups and when connected there’s no worry about draining your house power battery.  But as more RV owners venture to primitive sites, having the right kind of battery will keep you from running out of power during your stay.

It’s important to understand that there are different types of batteries that can be installed in RV’s for house power use. The most common is a standard 12-volt automotive starter battery. According to Fred Wehmeyer, Sr. VP of Engineering at U.S. Battery Manufacturing automotive starter batteries are not the best type to use for house power when primitive camping.  When you need reserve power to operate lights and appliances in your RV without electrical hook-ups, you need sustained power over a long period of time.  Automotive batteries are designed to provide very high current over a very short time to crank the engine, but are not designed to be discharged deeply and will drain quickly when powering the house load.  Also, the vehicle’s alternator/regulator charging system is not designed to fully charge batteries that are deeply discharged when used for house power.  This type of battery charging requires a dedicated charger that can be connected to AC power and also requires specially designed deep-cycle batteries to withstand the rigors of deep-cycling to provide many hours of reserve energy.

Deep cycle batteries are a much better choice for RV house power.  They are available in both 6 volt and 12-volt sizes that can be connected in multiple series and parallel configurations to provide the amp-hour capacity at 12 or 24 volts, to support the runtime needed in the application,” says Wehmeyer. “Depending on the physical size and the internal design of the battery, battery manufacturers provide ratings on the battery label to indicate the runtime and amp-hour capacity at various discharge rates and times.  This allows the user to match the battery voltage and amp-hour capacity to the desired runtime for the specific requirements of the various loads (lights, appliances, etc.) and to select the best deep cycle battery type and configuration for the application.”

If you look at the types of batteries that owners of electric powered golf carts are using, the vast majority are equipped with 6, 8, or 12-volt deep-cycle lead-acid batteries because they provide reliable and cost-effective power over many years of deep-cycle service. “Switching your RV’s house power from an automotive starter battery to a deep cycle, RV/Marine or golf car-type battery will provide greater amp-hour capacity (reserve power) for Overlanding adventures and longer cycle life particularly when sized properly for a maximum of 50 percent depth of discharge (DOD) based on the battery pack’s total amp-hour capacity,” said Wehmeyer.

When discussing deep cycle batteries, there are essentially two types,  flooded lead-acid (FLA) and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA).  There are also two types of VRLA batteries,  absorbed glass mat (AGM) batteries and gelled electrolyte (GEL) batteries.  FLA batteries require regular maintenance such as checking the electrolyte levels and adding distilled water to the battery cells from time to time. This is to ensure the electrolyte completely covers the cell plates at all times, typically 1/4-inch below the bottom of the fill well of the cell cover.

Sealed VRLA batteries have no free electrolyte in them and do not require water addition.  In an AGM battery, the electrolyte is absorbed in a special glass mat separator, and in a GEL battery, the electrolyte is immobilized in a silica gel.  Both types of VRLA batteries require special chargers and/or charge algorithms to provide optimum performance and life.  They are usually heavier, more expensive, and do not last as long as premium FLA deep cycle batteries.

Deep-cycle lithium batteries are becoming more popular in many applications but Wehmeyer says that the chemistry of lithium batteries requires a battery management system (BMS) to safely control how the battery is charged and discharged.  While there are specialized chargers available for lithium batteries, it is not a simple proposition to safely add them to an RV’s electrical system.

As you can see, simply switching from standard automotive starting batteries to deep cycle batteries for your RV’s house power can be very beneficial.  Also, if later you find that you need additional runtime or capacity, you can add more batteries or switch to higher amp-hour capacity batteries.  Another option is to add solar panels and/or an auxiliary generator to be able to charge the batteries when AC power is not available.

 

Nilfisk floor cleaning machine

Replacement Batteries For Nilfisk Floor Cleaning Machines

Choosing the right deep-cycle batteries for Nilfisk Retriever and SRModel Ride-On-Top floor cleaning machines

Nilfisk is one of the leading manufacturers of battery-powered floor cleaning machines that last a long time. Many older models are still in use with maintenance crews that utilize these vehicles on a full-time basis. With proper maintenance, the deep-cycle batteries can last several years but eventually will need to be replaced. Here are some of the best replacement batteries with some options for SR and Retriever sit-on-top models.

The Nilfisk Retriever 4000B and 4600B model cleaning machines, as well as the Nilfisk SR1100B machines, require a 24-Volt battery pack that fits a Group Size 902 deep-cycle battery.  U.S. Battery manufactures a US 305XC2 deep-cycle battery that is a direct replacement that provides 310 amp-hours at a 20-hour rate. If the vehicle will be under severe working conditions requiring longer operating times between charges, U.S. Battery also has a High Capacity battery for these vehicles, a US 305HCXC2, which provides 340 amp-hours at a 20-hour rate.

There are several models of the Nilfisk SR ride-on-top floor cleaning machines that require different size batteries because of the size and shape of the unit. For Nilfisk SR1000B and SR1005B models that require a 24-volt battery pack with a group size 31 battery, U.S. Battery offers it’s US 31DSXC2 deep-cycle battery that provides 130 amp-hours at a 20-hour rate.

Nilfisk SR100ECO models utilize a group size 24 battery and operate with a 12-volt system requiring two 12-volt batteries. U.S. Battery’s US 24DCXC2 is an optimum choice for a replacement with an 85 amp-hour rating at a 20-hour rate. Larger Nilfisk SR1300B models also have a 24-volt system but can operate with longer runtimes with four 6-volt batteries in the 903 group size platform. U.S. Battery’s US L16XC2 deep-cycle batteries are a popular choice, providing 385 amp-hours at a 20-hour rate. Greater capacity can be achieved with U.S. Battery’s US L16HCXC2 high-capacity batteries that are rated at 420 amp-hours at a 20-hour rate.

The Nilfisk SR1300ECO floor cleaning machine utilizes a 24-volt system requiring two 12-volt deep-cycle batteries in a group size 27. U.S. Battery’s US 27DCXC2 makes a great replacement, providing 105 amp-hours at a 20-hour rate.

Proper Maintenance Adds Battery Life

To get the most performance from your new battery, you must develop a regular maintenance schedule that consists of:

  • Checking and replenishing the electrolyte levels. Installing a BWT or Flow-Rite single-point-watering kit can make this an easy and quick process.
  • Performing an equalization charge
  • Checking and Cleaning battery terminals and connections
  • Performing an opportunity charge when possible

For a full list of proper Deep Cycle Battery Care & Maintenance procedures, please see our page or download our Care & Maintenance brochure. U.S. Battery Deep Cycle batteries are handcrafted in the U.S.A. The batteries also feature our exclusive XC2 formulation that produces increased initial capacity, fastest cycle-up time to full-rated capacity, improved recharge-ability, and the highest total energy delivered than any battery in their class. For a complete list of Flooded Lead-Acid or AGM batteries for all types of floor cleaning machines for various make and manufacturers, U.S. Battery’s Floor Machine Battery page to see all of the models, sizes, and specifications available to fit your particular vehicle.

 

battery pack capacity infograph

Battery Pack’s Size Impacts Capacity And Run-Time

Having to buy a new set of batteries for your golf car is not something people always look forward to. A 48-volt golf car can take anywhere from four or even eight batteries, depending on the compartment space and vehicle model. This can be a big investment, so if you could get away with only buying four 12v batteries, would that be better? It might seem so upfront, but depending on how often you use your golf car and the amount of runtime you expect, fewer batteries with the same voltage may not always be the best choice.

Depending on the make and model of your golf car, it may seem less expensive to buy four 12-volt batteries connected in series to power a 48-volt system. Choosing higher voltage deep-cycle batteries, however,  often means sacrificing amp-hour capacity. Under constant use, a four-battery pack will have a shorter life cycle than a pack producing the same 48-volts but made up of more batteries. The reason is that the larger battery pack provides a substantial increase in amp-hour capacity, leading to more runtime and cycle life than a smaller battery pack.

More batteries connected in series can produce the same amount of voltage, but because there are more batteries to share the load, it lowers the discharge rate per battery. The driving range is also extended because more batteries increase the overall capacity. Think of it like adding a larger fuel tank to your car. With a larger battery bank, you can drive your golf car farther between charges. If you keep your depth of discharge (DOD) on the battery pack less than 50 percent, it will ultimately add to making the pack last much longer than a pack with fewer batteries.

For example, on a 48-volt golf car, you can typically get a longer driving range and increased battery life with six 8V batteries, and even more capacity with eight 6V batteries. There are still other variables to consider, as there are various 6V and 8V batteries with different amp-hour ratings, but when you replace the batteries with the same amp-hour rating required by the golf car manufacturer and provide proper maintenance procedures, the battery bank with more batteries will last longer. Additional information on explaining the effects of wiring batteries in series and parallel can be found here: https://www.usbattery.com/info-center/configuration/

TTBLS structure grown with additives

Improving Deep-Cycle Batteries Through Additives

Battery manufacturers have improved deep cycle battery performance through the use of additives, but not all of them result in the same benefit to customers. At the core of all deep-cycle flooded lead-acid (FLA) battery technology is a basic design that has undergone continuous improvement over more than 100 years. Lead battery chemistry is one of the most reliable and cost-effective technologies over any other type of battery used in a variety of global industries. While these batteries have historically been the most widely used and the most recycled, a variety of additives and technologies have been introduced over the last few years to improve their efficiency to an even greater extent.

Grid Alloys

Historically, the primary failure mode of deep-cycle lead-acid batteries has been positive grid corrosion. The grid alloys used to manufacture deep-cycle flooded lead-acid battery plates typically consist of lead with additions of antimony to harden the soft lead, and to improve the deep cycle characteristics of the battery. Additional metals are often added to the lead-antimony alloys to improve strength and electrical conductivity. Another additive that is used to enhance lead-antimony alloys is selenium. Selenium acts as a grain refiner in lead-antimony alloys. This fine-grain alloy provides additional strength and corrosion resistance over conventional lead-antimony alloys. The effect of these improvements is that positive grid corrosion is no longer the primary failure mode, and the cycle life of FLA deep cycle batteries has been significantly increased.

Active Materials

The starting materials for deep cycle FLA positive active materials are made from a mixture of lead oxide, sulfuric acid, and various additives. These materials improve the performance and life of the positive electrodes in a finished battery. Historically, positive electrodes have been processed using a procedure called hydroset. This procedure is designed to ‘grow’ tetrabasic lead sulfate (TTBLS) crystals in the plates to provide the strength to resist the constant expansion and contraction of the active materials during cycling. This crystal growing process has limitations in its ability to control the range of sizes of the TTBLS crystals. Through the use of crystal seeding additives, the range of crystal sizes can be controlled to the most desirable sizes. These uniform crystal sizes in the TTBLS structure result in increased initial capacity, faster cycle-up to rated capacity, higher peak capacity, and improved charging using the wide range of charger technologies used in various applications.

Concurrent with the improvements in deep cycle FLA positive active materials, improvements in the performance of deep-cycle FLA negative active materials are needed. Carbon additives have been used in the negative active materials of lead-acid batteries for many years. These additives have been used in lead-acid battery expanders to prevent the natural tendency of the negative active material to shrink or coalesce during cycling. Negative active material shrinkage can reduce the capacity and life of deep-cycle FLA batteries. Recent improvements in these carbon materials have opened up new opportunities to improve several performance limitations of lead-acid batteries. New structured carbon materials such as graphites, graphenes, and nanocarbons have been used to control sulfation and improve chargeability in a partial state of charge (PSOC) applications such as renewable energy.

Although the basic structure of an FLA battery hasn’t changed for more than 100-years, manufacturers are continually searching for ways to improve efficiency while maintaining their cost-effectiveness. Additives are one of the ways FLA batteries are becoming more efficient, and new technologies to further enhance them are on the horizon.

Group 27 & 31 Batteries and Floor Cleaning Machines

Group 27 & 31 Batteries Designed for Floor Your Cleaning Machines

Maintaining clean facilities has become more critical than ever. To reduce the spread of the COVID-19 outbreak, reliable power for floor cleaning machines is playing an essential role in a Facility Manager’s cleaning regimen.

Many battery-operated floor cleaning. machines utilize BCI group 27 & 31 batteries. Typically, group size 27 and 31 batteries are referred to as “Hybrid.” This is due to the way they are constructed (generally designed for lighter cycling duties such as marine and RV applications). While “hybrid” type batteries are designed to have more deep cycle capability, than Starting batteries, they do not perform as well over time. “Hybrid” type batteries cannot cycle at the same performance levels and are unable to produce as many cycle lives as a true deep cycle battery.

The US Battery team, in consultation with some of our industry partners, came to the conclusion that if we were going to be a player in this market that we needed to have batteries that could provide our customers with a quality product that is also a better value. So, we set out to build a better option. We worked from the ground up and developed our “DC” line of batteries, which includes the US 27DC XC2, and the US 31DC XC2 specifically for use in high-energy consuming cleaning equipment.

When comparing to the “Hybrid” types available on the market, hybrids generally can provide approximately 150-170 cycles when discharged down to 1.75 volts per cell. Our DC line, by comparison, typically supplies about 500 cycles. This is a considerable improvement, and while slightly more expensive than a hybrid, the value to the end-user is substantially improved.

Today our DC line of batteries are used in many floor cleaning machines; because of their reliability and long life. Operators of Nilfisk, Minuteman International, and Power-Flite floor machines often find them powering their equipment. To see all of our cleaning deep cycle batteries please see the Floor Machine application page.

White golf club car.

Replacement Batteries For Club Car Golf Carts

Club Car golf carts have been around for nearly 60-years, producing a variety of battery-powered golf cars, utility, and personal use vehicles. As most owners of these vehicles know, proper battery maintenance is key to longevity and reliability, but eventually, the batteries will need to be replaced. 

 

When it comes time to get a new set of deep-cycle batteries for your Club Car, it’s important to make sure you select the right ones for your particular application, and most importantly, the type of use it will see. Club Car’s battery specifications are different for the various model vehicles they produce. Most utilize a 48-volt electric engine but depending on the model, have different amperage and power requirements.

 

As an example, Club Car DS and Precedent models (2in1, 2Plus2, Cargo, Professional), XF (2in1, 2Plus2) and XF Cargo models take six BCI Group Size GC8 eight-volt batteries. Choosing the right one depends on if you use the vehicle daily or if it says in storage at your vacation home. For each of these types of scenarios, there are different battery ratings to choose from that might better match your usage needs. U.S. Battery’s US 8VGC XC2 (with a 20-hour rate of 170) is a great choice for those who want a longer-lasting battery for this application. The US 8VGCE XC2 (with a 20-hour rate of 155) offers less overall runtime for applications where the vehicle won’t be used daily, offering a more cost-effective solution.

 

Club Car Precedent Champion models also use a 48-volt system but utilize four BCI Group Size GC12, 12-volt batteries. U.S. Battery’s 12VRX XC2 (20-hour rate of 155) provides a great compromise between daily and occasional use. 

 

Proper Maintenance Makes The Difference 

 

To get the most performance from your new battery, you must develop a regular maintenance schedule that consists of:

 

1. Checking and replenishing the electrolyte levels. Installing a BWT or Flow-Rite single-point-watering kit can make this an easy and quick process.

2. Performing an equalization charge

3. Checking and Cleaning battery terminals and connections

4. Performing an opportunity charge when possible

 

For a full list of proper Deep Cycle Battery Care & Maintenance procedures please see our page or download our Care & Maintenance brochure.

 

U.S. Battery Deep Cycle batteries are handcrafted in the U.S.A. The batteries also feature our exclusive XC2 formulation that gives them the highest initial capacity, fastest cycle-up time to full-rated capacity, improved recharge-ability, and the highest total energy delivered than any battery in their class. For a complete list of Flooded Lead-Acid or AGM batteries for golf cars and utility vehicles visit U.S. Battery’s Golf and Utility Vehicle Battery page to see all of the models, sizes, and specifications available to fit your particular vehicle.